Oh, who passes through our lands, and who dwells in our valley here, the sun of life has shone and given birth to the heroes and greats of history. On the walls of Egypt, history tells stories of these. Do not be surprised when you see and hear what the stories tell, for before the consciences of peoples there was here conscience, and before scholars of science there were civilizations, and before the light of God entered the hearts here was the beginning of the life of the soul and worship.
Maniton, the ancient Egyptian historian who wrote the history of the great ancestors, found that the Eighteenth Dynasty (1570-1404 BC) should begin with Ahmose the Great, and among the great ones of this family also are Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti, and Tutankhamen.
And the genius of Ahmose was not only in his military heroism, or that he expelled the Hyksos and then rested and took the pleasure of power and the throne, but his genius was that he was able to build Egypt again and he raised national awareness in the Egyptians, and he began to secure the eastern borders of Egypt, so he realized that the security of Egypt is a strategic depth outside its borders He reached Syria to secure the eastern gate and built military bases there. He also secured the west and south of the country as well, and restored Nubia.
And he began organizing the army, joining it in large numbers, dividing the army into corps, wings, and depth, taking care of the naval fleet, and establishing training camps for soldiers and war equipment. The army used to be called the sons of the homeland warriors, and the soldier was called and still is to this day the title nafar, which is an ancient Egyptian word meaning beautiful.
And Ahmose laid the basics of collective administrative work and organizing the government. Egypt was divided into twenty-seven governorates, ruled by a prince or governor, and each governorate is divided into departments and smaller offices to serve the people. The governorates of one tribe had a prince and another of the governorates of Bahri, and they met with the king weekly.
He cared about constructing roads and rebuilding deserts, agriculture and quarries, and he cared about justice and the judiciary, so he wrote during this period: He used to give the poor as he gave powers his share, and he did not prefer the great person over the lowly, but he was punishing the oppressor regardless of his worth. And he built a temple at the entrance to Karnak, but it was later destroyed, and he made golden vessels inlaid with precious stones for the temple of Amun at Karnak. He died when he was a young man at the age of thirty-five, and he was sentenced to twenty-two years.
His son, Amenhotep the First, took the throne, but the tribes of the West and South, when they heard of the death of Ahmose, prepared their armies to attack Egypt, so he personally led the army and defeated them in the west, went down to the south, and eliminated the rebellion until the third cataract in Sudan. He paid attention to justice and workers ’wages. He built a temple in Karnak and Abydos, and ruled for twenty years. He was the last of the Egyptian kings to be buried in pyramids, and after him, Tuthmosis the First began digging tombs in the rocks of a secluded valley behind the good mountains to be safe from thieves.
The engineer Anini was the one who built the tomb in the mountain, which was later called the Valley of the Tombs of the Kings. Strabua says it contained forty tombs from the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Dynasty. When Amenhotep the First died, he did not have a son from the queen, but he had a son, who was Thutmose from a non-royal wife, and in order for him to be the king, he married Princess Ahmose, the daughter of Amenhotep the First, and became Thutmose I (1540 BC). He was also interested in building fortresses and military bases in Syria, and built a military edifice there on the Euphrates. But he also did not have children from the queen’s wife, but he gave birth to Hat-Shepsut, and the old king announced that his daughter Hatshepsut was his partner in power and heir to the throne. But quarrels occurred between priests and senior officials that Hatshepsut would be the heir to the throne, because whoever sits on the throne must represent the god Horus, but Hatshepsut was at the end of her father’s life who was in control of the country. And Tuthmosis the First had a son from a non-royal wife as well, who was Tuthmosis the Second.
Thutmose the second was a weak figure and weak in body and soul as well. She was the actual ruler of the country, especially that Tuthmosis the first declared at the end of his life that she was the heir to the throne, and there are inscriptions of him addressing the royal court and saying: You must obey her majesty, so whoever subjugates her majesty will not be left alive. . She was prepared for this task with education and training from a young age, and she was at the age of twenty when she married Thutmose the Second and gave birth to him a son and two daughters, but the son died in his childhood, and the king also had a son from a non-royal wife named Thutmose III who wanted to be the heir to the throne after him, and to guarantee The priests of Amun supported him because of their influence on the people and declared the legitimacy of the king. He deposited him with them in the temple when he was young, to be brought up on their hands and make them feel that he is their son too.
Tuthmosis the second died young and it is said that he was in the early thirties and that he was only three years old, which raised doubts about his death. Thutmose III was eleven years old, and until the priests of Amun sat him on the throne before the power of Hatshepsut, they made a woven story. Days after the death of his father, and in one of the celebrations, the procession of the god Amun went out and was attended by Hatshepsut, and the priests were carrying the statue of Amun. Hatshepsut accepted this provisionally after they declared her regency on the throne because he was still a young boy. But she was gathering supporters and a strong party around her, so she was the true queen, and after thirteen years she removed Thutmose III after the priests of Amun announced the legend of her birth, and that the god Amun is her true father as a result of his union with her mother and thus she represents God on the throne. This legend was written on the walls of her temple in Deir al-Bahari. She sat on the throne and Tuthmosis the Third disappeared from the scene temporarily, to return after her death, and to write history the most amazing stories in the history of Egypt, the mother of the world.
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