Egypt between Saad and Milner! Ahmed Abd Rabbo

Despite the failure of the mission of the Egyptian delegation in Paris even before it reached the reconciliation conference, Saad Zaghloul and his companions continued their tireless attempts to pressure European governments by addressing public opinion in France and the United States through leading writers and writers, but this did not change the matter, for Britain They pressured all the major powers participating in the conference in order to acknowledge the British protection against Egypt, and it was!
In May 1919, Lord Curzon gave a speech in the British House of Lords in which he affirmed the British protection, referring to the recognition of US President Wilson of this, and noting the seriousness of the situation in Egypt following the 1919 uprising and presented a proposal accepted by the British government to form a committee headed by Lord Milner, whose aim would be to work to stabilize Egypt and confirm British interests Out!
Meanwhile, the Egyptian government headed by Hussein Rushdie – who at that time had spent about 5 years in office in which he formed four different governments – was facing many difficulties, especially after its failure to respond to the demands of the revolutionaries from Egyptian officers and civilians. Guarding public squares and entrusting the task to the Egyptian officers, while the civilian revolutionaries formed a political committee consisting of 32 members. The Rushdie government demanded the following: (1) Authorize the official delegation status, (2) The ministry publicly affirmed that accepting responsibility does not mean recognizing British protection, ( 3) The release of the revolutionary detainees, (4) The transfer of civilian trials from military courts to civilian courts!
After Rushdie failed to implement these demands, his government resigned, and the British decided to assign responsibility to Muhammad Said Pasha to form his second government after he was prime minister of Egypt between 1910 and 1914. Some historians say that assigning the task to Saeed was aimed at pressuring and marginalizing Saad Zaghloul, especially since the enmity between the two parties was known. Britain was hoping that Said would facilitate the task of the Milner Commission in Egypt, but it failed in that!
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Immediately after Saeed Pasha assumed the position, he stated that his government is not a political government, but an administrative government that aims to run the affairs of the country and look into the causes of instability, and despite that statement, which apparently aimed to lift the pressure on the government’s shoulders, the government’s mission was political par excellence, as Saeed negotiated with Britain for the release of some political detainees, raising the salaries of employees, transferring civilian trials from civilian courts to military courts, and abolishing censorship on newspapers. He did indeed succeed in achieving these demands, but he never won the confidence of the revolutionaries who accused him of calming down the situation as an attempt to circumvent the claim. Lift the protection and facilitate the work of Milner Committee!
In the meantime, the British colonial minister, Lord Mellner, was preparing to come with his committee to Egypt, and Said Pasha instructed all government departments to prepare reports and statements to present to the committee, but most of the Egyptian forces confirmed their rejection of the committee, and the National Party issued the famous principle: “No negotiation until after the evacuation.” The delegation also adhered to complete independence, and in the meantime Saeed Pasha was subjected to a failed assassination attempt. After all these developments, he decided to resign and was succeeded by Yusef Wahba Pasha, who tried to do what Said had done before him by describing his government as “administrative”, but that was also nothing but an attempt to disavow Responsibility for receiving Lord Milner’s Committee!
The Egyptians rejected Youssef Wahba’s government, describing him as an agent of the British, and the secret apparatus of the 1919 revolution decided to assassinate Youssef Wahba, and the task was assigned to one of the apparatus teams, but one of the members of the secret service, Erian Saad, objected and requested that the assassination mission be assigned to him and justified his request that when al-Wardani assassinated a president Former Minister Boutros Ghali, incidents of sedition broke out between Muslims and Copts, but if he carried out the assassination himself, this would nullify the fitnah, since Aryan Saad and Yusef Wahba Pasha are both Copts! Erian was achieved what he wanted and was assigned to the assassination, so he waited for Wahba Pasha’s convoy that passes in front of the famous Rish Cafe in the center of the country and threw two bombs at the procession, but they missed the target and Aryan Saad was arrested and later he was imprisoned for ten years (from a report by Saeed Al-Shahat On “The Seventh Day” published on December 15, 2019 “)!
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The Milner Committee finally arrived in Egypt in December 1919, and the delegation refused to negotiate with the committee, because this negotiation means transforming the issue of protection from an international issue to a bilateral issue between Egypt and Britain, and because negotiating with a committee whose goal is to confirm protection is in itself recognition! The political forces were unanimously agreed that if the committee wanted to negotiate, it must negotiate with Saad Zaghloul, who was still in Paris at that time!
When Mellner found that strong rejection of the Egyptians, he tried to pretend to be flexible, reassuring the Egyptians that the goal of his committee is to negotiate ways to administer Egypt in a sound constitutional manner and to achieve friendly understandings between the two countries in a way that achieves their common interest, stressing his openness to negotiation with the Egyptian people without restricting opinions, but Because once again he did not touch on protection, and from here Saad Zaghloul sent a statement to the Egyptian nation urging them not to respond to the committee or negotiate with it (Omar Abdulaziz, reference already mentioned)!
However, some heavyweights close to the delegation, such as Hussein Rushdi, Adly Yakan, and Abdel Khaleq Tharwat, tried to persuade Saad Zaghloul to return to Egypt and negotiate with the committee, but Saad Zaghloul confirmed his rejection, indicating that he would not negotiate with the committee except to raise protection, while the committee wants to limit the negotiation to the issue. “Autonomy”! Then the trio returned to assure Saad that the interpretation of the word autonomy does not mean excluding negotiations on independence, assuring him that Lord Milner is ready to negotiate complete independence, but he cannot publicly disclose this, but Saad affirmed his rejection again, so you only negotiate independence!
Faced with this popular and political insistence on boycotting the committee, the latter decided to end its mission in Egypt and return to Britain in March 1920, that is, only three months after its arrival, and Milner made sure that the work of his committee would only succeed by negotiating with Saad, so he asked Adly to be Once again to mediate with Saad, and since the latter had realized that the reconciliation conference would not give Egypt any rights, he traveled to London with the rest of the delegation in Paris!
Milner presented Saad with an offer declaring Britain’s willingness to “organize protection that leads to the independence of Egypt.” In exchange for this vague promise, he requested Saad’s recognition of British privileges in Egypt while accepting to maintain military forces in it, appointing a British financial advisor, and organizing Egypt’s foreign relations! Saad rejected this offer, and presented an alternative proposal in which he agreed to appoint the British financial advisor, to recognize British privileges in Egypt, and to postpone negotiations on the Sudan issue, but he refused the British military forces to remain in Egypt while accepting the presence of a limited force in the Canal region that would last for 10 years, provided that it was returned Negotiating the status of these forces after the specified period, and in return, Saad requested Britain’s recognition of the full independence of Egypt and its undiminished sovereignty in its domestic and foreign policy, and Britain’s pledge to defend Egypt if the latter was subjected to any aggression, and Milner rejected the offer again, and a judicial mediation was made again, and Milner tried to amend the offer. By changing some words, but without making any explicit promise to end the protection, Saad sent his reservations on the new offer because it does not guarantee Egypt’s basic demand, which is independence!
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Saad returned to Egypt and was received very warmly by the Egyptians as a national hero, and Adly Yakan continued trying to mediate, and most of the members of the delegation saw a mandate to negotiate with Milner and the vote was made, so the Wafd majority agreed, but Saad, along with Seniot Hanna and Wassef Ghali, insisted on the rejection. Saad saw that the majority vote of the delegation does not matter as long as the rest of the nation’s currents oppose the committee’s work, so Saad saw that he represents the Egyptian nation and not only the delegation. Therefore, the nation’s unanimity, not the majority of the delegation, is the one who must rely on the position towards Milner and his committee!
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