Britain is lifting its protection on Egypt … Why did it impose it on Cairo?

On this day, February 21, 1922 AD, the United Kingdom ended the protection it had imposed on Egypt In 1914, the story goes back to its beginning when Khedive Abbas II was deposed on December 19, 1914, following the start of World War I, who was absent from Egypt at the outbreak of the war, he went to Astana in early summer, and stayed there until the war between England and Germany was declared And he hesitated to return to Egypt, despite Rushdie Pasha’s insistence on him, and when he intended to return to it, the British government showed its desire not to return, as it was intent on removing him.

His uncle, Hussein Kamel Ibn Khedive Ismail, was installed in his place, so that on December 18, 1914, England declared its protection over Egypt, and on the same day the Egyptian Gazette published the Declaration of Protection, and it read: “A declaration placing Egypt under the protection of Great Britain.”: The foreign overseer announces His Majesty the King of Great Britain has that, in view of the state of war caused by Turkey’s action, the country of Egypt has been placed under the protection of his Majesty, and from now on it has become one of the countries covered by British protection. And protect its people and interests, “and the official title of Egypt’s ruler became” Sultan “as confirmation of her exit from Ottoman sovereignty.

When the 1919 revolution erupted, Britain began to feel the Egyptians ’hatred of its sovereignty and thought to remedy the situation by sending a committee to calm Egypt headed by Lord Mollner, Minister of Colonies. Demonstrations erupted in Egypt to protest against the committee, and the Egyptians announced a boycott, and Al-Azhar supported them in this.

The committee arrived in Egypt and spent three months studying the conditions and causes of the revolution, but it faced strong opposition from the nation’s classes, and the national newspapers stirred people’s sentiments against it, and most Egyptian writers agreed to authorize Saad Zaghloul to speak on behalf of the people in Paris in demanding independence, as they called the committee to negotiate with him.

But the committee returned to London without reaching anything, and Milner suggested to the British Foreign Office to win over the Egyptians by giving them a kind of autonomy and internal independence. Accordingly, Milner sent to the Egyptian delegation in Paris to come to London to negotiate and the delegation that tried to reconcile independence with the care of British interests responded. The intention of the British appeared in seeking to replace the explicit protection disguised protection under the name of the alliance between the two countries.

Milner submitted a draft treaty to the Egyptian delegation that did not include recognition of the independence of Egypt, so the delegation demanded the cancellation of the protection, and Britain informed King Fuad on February 26, 1922, to authorize an official delegation for negotiations, so Adly Yakan chose to form a new ministry and lead the Egyptian delegation to London, and negotiations failed with him as well.

And a statement was issued on February 28, 1922 AD, whose clauses were: “End the British protection of Egypt and that it be a sovereign state, abolishing the martial law declared on November 24, 1914 AD”, until the conclusion of agreements between the two parties, Britain will have some reservations: “Securing transportation The British Empire in Egypt, the right to defend Egypt against any external aggressions or interference, the right to protect foreign interests in Egypt and the protection of minorities, the right to act in Sudan.

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